Thursday, June 10, 2010

pengen sok ilmiah ah..

itu punya sayah yaaaaa...pembacaaaa!;)

oia,,kemarin tuh kan kuliah tektonika,
dengan dosen saya yang superduper unik sekali,
dan sangat jail..

[anak geologi unsoed pasti tau beliau yg disebut sebagai AW1]

tugastugasnya juga sangat menggelitik dan mmmm...bikin kita kreatif dan sangat imajinatif sihh..
kaya apaan ajah..
qta dsuruh translet gtu plus ngasih gambarnya tpi tulis tangan !
hadoohhh.. cukup lah yaaa...seabregabreg laporan yang dtulis tangan jangan pake tugas kuliah juga yang ikut serta...

berhubung saya mempunyai kopian salah satu translet tugasnya..
maka saya masukkan d blog tercinta ini..

In concept, plate tectonics, transform boundary (also known as transform fault boundary, transform plate boundaries, boundaries shift or conservative plate boundaries) can occur when tectonic plates slide and grind (slide and grind) with each other along the transform fault. Relative movement of these plates is a lateral that can be directed to the right or envy (dextral or sinistral).
To the right or lateral movement of a plate envy of the other disc pads transform fault may cause the surface effects can be observed. As a result of friction the plates can not be easily passed, which causes the pressure plate and the second pads when the pressure has reached the saturation point then the energy will be released in the form of scratches or movement along a fault. Large amount of energy released causes the earthquake occurs is a common phenomenon pads transform.
most transform boundaries can be found on the ocean floor, where the boundaries are offset active spreading ocean floor to form a shaped plate boundaries zig-zag. however, limit the well-known transform can be found on the mainland.
But as, transform boundaries that we can see on the mainland are as follows:
1. San Andreas fault in california
2. alpine fault in New Zealand
3. north Anatolian fault d turkey
4. sumatra major faults in Indonesia

San Andreas fault
San Andreas fault is a geological fault has roughly the distance range of about 800 miles (equivalent to 1287 kilometers) through California area, this Serikat.Americans fault, which is a horizontal fault to the right, a sign of transform boundary between the Pacific plate to North American plate.
It also has been known as a place where a large earthquake and bumf destructive has occurs along its surface.
San Andreas Fault can be divided into three segments. The southernmost segment (also known as the Mojave segment) begins near the Salton Sea and moving towards the north before the fault was bending slowly towards the west secam fault when it meets the San Bernardino Mountains. At this location, fault moves south along the base of the San Bernardino Mountains, through the Cajon Pass and continue moving toward the northwest along the base of the San Gabriel mars Mountains. This mountain range is a bacillus of the movement along the San Andreas Fault and the pads are generally referred to as the Barisan Transverse (Transverse Range). Segments of this fault is part of most wring analyzed as earthquake fault by Pars Terrestrial expert when compared with other places. This is caused by a "cutout" pads fault in Palmdale, which is the second largest city located above this fault directly, where the Antelope Valley Freeway and through a thick layer of crust that 'shifted' can be seen clearly.
After going through Frazier Park, these faults began to bend towards mars. This area is called the "Big Bend" and is estimated as the place where the fault locking at Southern California as the plates are trying to move across one another.At this fault has intervals of energy release is roughly about every 140 to 160 years. In the northwestern part of Frazier Park, along the fault moves Carrizo Plain is a plain without trees so that most faults can be seen very well.
The center of the segment of the San Andreas Fault moves with arch northwest of Parkfield to Hollister. While the southern part of the fault and the parts through Parkfield ¬ experiencing earthquakes, the rest of the center of the fault show a phenomenon known as aseismic creep. This causes the fault can be moved without the need for various earthquake.
The northernmost segment of the fault moved from Hollister, past the San Francisco Peninsula where the fault is moving pads off the coast, then follow the coast of California near Cape Mendocino world, where there is a triple junction is not stable (this is to adi where three tectonic plates into one form a complex geology and the area is too unstable). In the

northern Cascadia subduction zone is where the Juan de Fuca Plate and the last part of the bottom is sometimes referred to as the Gorda Plate, bending under the limit of the North American Plate. In the west, along the continental boundaries, there Mendocino fault zone which is the limit, horizontal fault between the Juan de Fuca Plate to the Pacific Plate.


A small cola called Parkfield in California are on the path the San Andreas Fault. Earthquake experts found that in this section, fault produces consistently earthquake magnitude 6.0 with a value of once every 22 years. Following the tedadi earthquake in 1857, 1881, 1901, 1922, 1934 and 1966 the scientists predict that the Parkfield earthquake will happen in 1993. This earthquake finally occurred in 2004. As a result of activities going on and wring earlier predicted the Parkfield

has become one of the most famous places in the world where scientists are trying to record a large earthquake.
In 2004, the work done bare pads just north of Parkfield conducted by the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). The purpose of is to SAFOR drilling pads about 3 kilometers of the earth's crust and the San Andreas Fault. A sensor will be placed to record the earthquake that this region occurs.
A supervise other research pads along the fault shifts in scale and have shown that between Los Angeles and San Francisco (who both have the rear of the San Andreas Fault) Baling moving closer to each other between on at about 1 / 5 inch (equivalent to 0.6 cm) set-up year.

San Andreas Fault has at least three earthquakes that bush can be seen throughout its history.
In 1857, along 220 miles (equivalent to 350 kilometers) apart of central and southern California, from Parkfield to Cajon Pass (southeast. Wrightwood). This is better known as the Fort Tejon earthquake where the epicenter is known far north side of the pads near the south of Parkfield. Only 2 people were reported killed in this incident. Estimated adalab magnitude 8.0.
In the year 1906, along 270 miles (equivalent to 430 kilometers) apart in northern California, from San Juan Bautista to Eureka. Epicenter is located near San Franciso. Around 3000 people were reported killed in the earthquake and fire. Estimated magnitude is 7.8.
In 1989, along 25 miles (equivalent to 40 kilometers) apart near Santa Cruz, causing 63 people dead and caused damage to pads some San Francisco Bay Area. Magnitude is 7.1.
Alpine Fault
Alpine Fault is a geological fault, known as horizontal fault menganan, moving pads almost all parts of all New Zealand's South Island. This fault forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate transform with ¬ Indo Australian Plate. Earthquakes along the fault and earth movements associated with southern alps.


Starting at the southwest corner of South Island, moving along the Alpine Fault west side of the Southern Alps, and then divided into three parallel fault pads Athur's Pass. The average scale of the movement of the middle fault pads is about 30 mm per year, which this shows a faster movement when compared with the general standards that apply.
Alpine Fault has experienced a variety of scale earthquakes throughout its history. The earthquake include:
• In the 1848 Marlborough earthquake occurred with magnitude 7.5.
• In 1888 tedadi in North Canterbury earthquake with magnitude 7.3.
• In 1929, earthquake in tedadi Arthur's Pass with magnitude 7.1.
• In 1929 the Murchison earthquake occurred with magnitude 8.0
• In 1968 tedadi at Inangahua earthquake with magnitude 7.1.
• In 2003 tedadi Fiordland earthquake with a magnitude of 7.1.

Main divisions
In the thusand years a go has tedadi four main divisions along the Alpine Fault that causes earthquakes with magnitudes of about 8. This event is expected tedadi pads in 1100, 1450, 1620 and 1717, with the interval between 100 and events 350 years. In the year 1717, earthquakes seem to have caused a broken along the 400 kilometers pads 2 / 3 the south of this fault. Scientists estimate that the earthquake had a kind tedadi some pads of this decade. Large divisions can also spur the earthquake fault that continues pads utam towards the Alpine Fault.
North Anatolian Fault
North Anatolian Fault (Turkish language called Kuzey Anadolu Fayi) is one of is a earthquake zone of high energy in the world. Turkish state have at a minor tectonic plate which is pressed from the west arch due Arabian Plate and the Eurasian Plate moving together. North Anatolian Plate is run over the plate with a speed of between 1 and 20 centimeters each year.

earthquake occurs at along fault
Since the destructive earthquake at Erzincan in 1939, at least there are about seven other earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 Richter scale, which each progressive point tedadi pads western pads. Kegempaan experts who study these patterns accurs believe that earthquakes are "storm" in which a few decades, one earthquake spurred the next earthquake. By analyzing stress occurs along the fault pads every earthquake, they can predict the chaos that hit the city which suffered the effects lzmit crash in August 1999.

It is estimated that the chain has not reached occurs at
the final stage and is estimated that the earthquake will happen again will be the future at western part of the fault which is likely to happen to the big city of Istanbul.
1939 Erzincan 7.9
1942 Niksar-Erbaa 6.9
1943 Tosya 7.7
1944 Bolu-Gerede 7.5
1949 Karhova 7.1
Kux-1951 * unlu 6.8
1957 Abant 6.8
1966 Varto 6.6
Magnitude of the year and events
1967 Mudurnu 7.0
1971 Bing6I 6.8
1992 Erzincan 6.5
1999 Izmit Earthquake 7.4
7.1 Earthquake 1999 Dffzce

Great Sumatran Fault
at Sumatra island, which is part of the Indonesian archipelago lies at areas that have high seismic energy in the world. In addition to the subduction zone and the west coast Bow Sunda Islands, Sumatra island also are great transform fault, so called as the Great Sumatran Fault, which moved along the island. Fault ends uatara pads under the city of Banda Aceh, which suffered destruction on, when the Indian Ocean earthquake of 2004 pads. After the earthquake in December 2004 pads, pressure pads Great Sumatran Fault has increased significantly tennama especially at northern.

Although an earthquake fault pads will not cause the tsunami, this disaster still has consequences resulting from a population of human life pads the middle of this fault.

Great Sumatran Fault can be divided into three domains.
In the southern domain, trench-slope break, the outer-arc ridge, forearc basin and the Sumatran fault very irregular. In the middle domain, fore-arc regime divided by the secondary fault and strike along the Sumatran Fault subduction isobath. Investigator Fracture Zone (IFZ) bending under the domain name. ¬ form structure tedadi form seems important role in determining the source parameters of large earthquakes.
According to research conducted Tectonics Observatory of the California Institute of Technology, through the mapping along the 1900 kilometers with pets topography and aerial photographs, can see that this fault is divided by the complex. Large stepover dilatation seems too limiting fragmentation and magnitude scale up to 7.5. The total offset across the fault length is only about 20 to 100 km and the scale of the shift range of 11 to 27 mm annually.


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